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新视野大学英语_新视野大学英语3课文原文unit4 Five Famous Symbols of American

Section (A)

Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
The Statue of Liberty
In the mid-1870s, French artist Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was working on an enormous projectcalled Liberty Enlightening the World, a monument celebrating US independence and the France-America alliance. At the same time, he was in love with a woman whom he had met in Canada. Hismother could not approve of her son's affection for a woman she had never met, but Bartholdi wentahead and married his love in 1876.
That same year Bartholdi had assembled the statue's right arm and torch, and displayed them inPhiladelphia. It is said that he had used his wife's arm as the model, but felt her face was too beautifulfor the statue. He needed someone whose face represented suffering yet strength, someone moresevere than beautiful. He chose his mother.
The Statue of Liberty was dedicated on an island in Upper New York Bay in 1886. It had his mother'sface and his wife's body, but Bartholdi called it "my daughter, Liberty".
BarbieBefore all the different types of Barbie dolls for sale now, there was just a single Barbie. Actually, hername was Barbara.
Barbara Handler was the daughter of Elliot and Ruth Handler, co-founders of the Mattel ToyCompany. Ruth came up with the idea for Barbie after watching her daughter play with paper dolls.
The three-dimensional model for Barbie was a German doll — a joke gift for adults described as havingthe appearance of "a woman who sold sex". Mattel refashioned the doll into a decent, all-American —although with an exaggerated breast size — version and named it after Barbara, who was then ateenager.
Since her introduction in 1959, Barbie has become the universally recognized Queen of the Dolls.
Mattel says the average American girl owns ten Barbie dolls, and two are sold somewhere in the worldevery second.
Now more than sixty years old, Barbara — who declines interviews but is said to have loved the doll -may be the most famous unknown figure on the planet.
Barbie's boyfriend, Ken, was introduced in 1961 and named after Barbara's brother. The real Ken,who died in 1994, was disgusted by the doll that made his family famous. "I don't want my children toplay with it," he said in 1993.
American GothicGrant Wood instantly rose to fame in 1930 with his painting American Gothic, an often-copiedinterpretation of the solemn pride of American farmers. The painting shows a serious-looking man anda woman standing in front of a farmhouse. He was strongly influenced by medieval artists and inspiredby the Gothic window of an old farmhouse, but the faces in his composition were what captured theworld's attention.
Wood liked to paint faces he knew well. For the grave farmer he used his dentist, a sour-looking man.
For the woman standing alongside him, the artist chose his sister, Nan. He stretched the models' necksa bit, but there was no doubt who posed for the portrait.
Nan later remarked that the fame she gained from American Gothic saved her from a very boringlife.
The Buffalo Nickel

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Today, American coins honor prominent figures of the US government — mostly famous formerpresidents. But the Buffalo nickel, produced from 1913 to 1938, honored a pair of connected tragediesfrom the settlement of the American frontier — the destruction of the buffalo herds and the AmericanIndians.
While white people had previously been used as models for most American coins, famed artist JamesEarle Fraser went against tradition by using three actual American Indians as models for his creation.
For the buffalo on the other side, since buffalo no longer wandered about the great grasslands, Fraserwas forced to sketch an aging buffalo from New York City's Central Park Zoo. Two years later, in 1915,this animal was sold for $100 and killed for meat, a hide, and a wall decoration made from its horns.
Uncle SamFourteen-year-old Sam Wilson ran away from home to join his father and older brothers in the fightto liberate the American colonies from the British during the American Revolution. At age 23, hestarted a meatpacking business and earned a reputation for being honest and hard working.
During a later war in 1812, Wilson gained a position inspecting meat for US Army forces, workingwith a man who had signed a contract with the government to provide meat to the army. Barrels ofmeat supplied to the army were stamped "EA-US", identifying the company (EA) and country of origin(US). According to one story, when a government official visited the plant and asked about the letters, acreative employee told him "US" was short for "Uncle Sam" Wilson. Soon soldiers were saying all Armysupplies were from "Uncle Sam".
After the war, a character called Uncle Sam began appearing in political cartoons, his form evolvingfrom an earlier cartoon character called Brother Jonathan that was popular during the AmericanRevolution. Uncle Sam soon replaced Brother Jonathan as American's most popular symbol. The mostenduring portrait of Uncle Sam was created by artist James Montgomery Flagg in his famous armyrecruiting posters of World Wars I and II. That version — a tall man with white hair and a small whitebeard on his chin, a dark blue coat and a tall hat with stars on it — was a self-portrait of Flagg.
Words: 900New Words
statue n. 雕像,塑像,铸像
liberty n. 1.自由,自由权 2.许可,准许 3.放肆,无礼,冒昧行为
▲enlighten vt. 启发,开导
monument n. 纪念碑,纪念馆
alliance n. 同盟,联盟
approve vi. 赞成,称许
vt. 批准,同意
affection n. 1.喜爱 2.爱情,爱慕之情
assemble vt. 组装,装配
v. (使)集合,(使)聚集
torch n. 1.火炬 2.手电筒
bay n. (海或湖泊的)湾
exaggerate v. 夸张,夸大
breast n. 1.乳房 2.前胸,胸部
version n. 1.版本;型号 2.叙述,说法
universal a. 1.全体的,一致的,普遍的 2.通用的,广泛的,万能的 3.宇宙的,全世界的
Universally ad. 全体地,普遍地,无例外地
sixty num. 六十,六十个
fame n. 名誉,名望
interpretation n. 1.解释,说明,描述 2.(表演、演奏的)艺术处理
solemn a. 1.庄严的,肃穆的 2.严肃的
▲medieval a. 中古的,中世纪的
inspire vt. 1.给……以灵感 2.鼓舞,激励
grave a. 1.(指人)表情严肃的,端庄的 2.严重的
n. 坟墓,墓穴
▲dentist n. 牙科医生
alongside prep. 在... ...旁边,和... ....一起
ad. 在旁边,并排地
stretch vt. 1.拉长,拉紧,伸展 2.使尽全力,到(超过)... ... 的极限
vi. 扩展,延伸,延续
portrait n. 肖像,画像
◆buffalo n. 水牛,野牛
▲nickel n. (美国或加拿大的)五分镍币,五分钱
tragedy n. 1.悲剧,惨案,不幸的事件 2.悲剧(艺术)
settlement n. 1.殖民,移民,拓居 2.解决;协议
frontier n. 1.边境,边界,(美国靠近未开发地带的)边远地区 2.前沿,新领域
herd n. 兽群, 牧群
vt. 使集中在一起,把……赶在一起
horn n. 1.(牛、羊、鹿等的)角 2.喇叭,号角,警报器
liberate vt. 解放,释放
reputation n. 名声,名望
inspect vt. 1.检查 2.视察
contract n. 合同,契约
v. 订合同,订契约
evolve v. (使)演变,(使)演化,(使)发展
recruit vt. 招募,征兵,吸收(新成员)
n. 新兵,新成员
poster n. 招贴(画),海报,布告
beard n. 胡子,胡须
chin n. 下巴
Phrases and Expressions
work on sth. 从事于,致力于
be in love with sb. 与……恋爱,相爱
approve of sth. 赞成,称许,满意
go ahead 继续;进行
for sale 出售,待售
come up with 找到,想出(答案、解决办法等)
rise to fame 成名
name after sb. 以某人姓名命名
save sb. from 拯救,使免于
go against 与... ... 相反,违背
run away from 突然离开,逃离
Proper Names
the Statue of Liberty 自由女神像
Frederic Auguste Bartholdi 弗里德里克·奥古斯特·巴托尔迪(1834-1904,法国雕塑家)
Liberty Enlightening the World "自由照耀世界"
Philadelphia 费城(美国宾夕法尼亚州东南部港市)
New York Bay 纽约湾(靠美国纽约州东南岸和新泽西州东北岸,临哈得逊河)
Barbie 芭比娃娃(一种十分畅销的金发碧眼玩具娃娃的商标名)
Barbara Handler 芭芭拉·汉德勒
Elliot Handler 艾略特·汉德勒
Ruth Handler 鲁思·汉德勒
Mattel Toy Company 马特尔玩具公司
Ken 肯(人名)
American Gothic 《美国哥特式》(格兰特·伍德的名画)
Grant Wood 格兰特·伍德
Nan 南(人名)
Indian 印第安人
James Earle Fraser 詹姆斯·厄尔·弗雷泽
Central Park Zoo (纽约)中央公园动物园
Uncle Sam 山姆大叔(指美国政府或美国人)
Sam Wilson 山姆·威尔逊
the American Revolution 美国独立战争(1775-1783)
US Army 美国陆军
Brother Jonathan 乔纳森大哥(原为18世纪英国兵对美国民兵的谑称,现可指美国或典型的美国男人

James Montgomery Flagg 詹姆斯·蒙哥马利·弗拉格(1877-1960,美国插图和广告画家)

Section (A)
Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
The Statue of Liberty
In the mid-1870s, French artist Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was working on an enormous projectcalled Liberty Enlightening the World, a monument celebrating US independence and the France-America alliance. At the same time, he was in love with a woman whom he had met in Canada. Hismother could not approve of her son's affection for a woman she had never met, but Bartholdi wentahead and married his love in 1876.
That same year Bartholdi had assembled the statue's right arm and torch, and displayed them inPhiladelphia. It is said that he had used his wife's arm as the model, but felt her face was too beautifulfor the statue. He needed someone whose face represented suffering yet strength, someone moresevere than beautiful. He chose his mother.
The Statue of Liberty was dedicated on an island in Upper New York Bay in 1886. It had his mother'sface and his wife's body, but Bartholdi called it "my daughter, Liberty".
BarbieBefore all the different types of Barbie dolls for sale now, there was just a single Barbie. Actually, hername was Barbara.
Barbara Handler was the daughter of Elliot and Ruth Handler, co-founders of the Mattel ToyCompany. Ruth came up with the idea for Barbie after watching her daughter play with paper dolls.
The three-dimensional model for Barbie was a German doll — a joke gift for adults described as havingthe appearance of "a woman who sold sex". Mattel refashioned the doll into a decent, all-American —although with an exaggerated breast size — version and named it after Barbara, who was then ateenager.
Since her introduction in 1959, Barbie has become the universally recognized Queen of the Dolls.
Mattel says the average American girl owns ten Barbie dolls, and two are sold somewhere in the worldevery second.
Now more than sixty years old, Barbara — who declines interviews but is said to have loved the doll -may be the most famous unknown figure on the planet.
Barbie's boyfriend, Ken, was introduced in 1961 and named after Barbara's brother. The real Ken,who died in 1994, was disgusted by the doll that made his family famous. "I don't want my children toplay with it," he said in 1993.
American GothicGrant Wood instantly rose to fame in 1930 with his painting American Gothic, an often-copiedinterpretation of the solemn pride of American farmers. The painting shows a serious-looking man anda woman standing in front of a farmhouse. He was strongly influenced by medieval artists and inspiredby the Gothic window of an old farmhouse, but the faces in his composition were what captured theworld's attention.
Wood liked to paint faces he knew well. For the grave farmer he used his dentist, a sour-looking man.
For the woman standing alongside him, the artist chose his sister, Nan. He stretched the models' necksa bit, but there was no doubt who posed for the portrait.
Nan later remarked that the fame she gained from American Gothic saved her from a very boringlife.
The Buffalo Nickel

Today, American coins honor prominent figures of the US government — mostly famous formerpresidents. But the Buffalo nickel, produced from 1913 to 1938, honored a pair of connected tragediesfrom the settlement of the American frontier — the destruction of the buffalo herds and the AmericanIndians.
While white people had previously been used as models for most American coins, famed artist JamesEarle Fraser went against tradition by using three actual American Indians as models for his creation.
For the buffalo on the other side, since buffalo no longer wandered about the great grasslands, Fraserwas forced to sketch an aging buffalo from New York City's Central Park Zoo. Two years later, in 1915,this animal was sold for $100 and killed for meat, a hide, and a wall decoration made from its horns.
Uncle SamFourteen-year-old Sam Wilson ran away from home to join his father and older brothers in the fightto liberate the American colonies from the British during the American Revolution. At age 23, hestarted a meatpacking business and earned a reputation for being honest and hard working.
During a later war in 1812, Wilson gained a position inspecting meat for US Army forces, workingwith a man who had signed a contract with the government to provide meat to the army. Barrels ofmeat supplied to the army were stamped "EA-US", identifying the company (EA) and country of origin(US). According to one story, when a government official visited the plant and asked about the letters, acreative employee told him "US" was short for "Uncle Sam" Wilson. Soon soldiers were saying all Armysupplies were from "Uncle Sam".
After the war, a character called Uncle Sam began appearing in political cartoons, his form evolvingfrom an earlier cartoon character called Brother Jonathan that was popular during the AmericanRevolution. Uncle Sam soon replaced Brother Jonathan as American's most popular symbol. The mostenduring portrait of Uncle Sam was created by artist James Montgomery Flagg in his famous armyrecruiting posters of World Wars I and II. That version — a tall man with white hair and a small whitebeard on his chin, a dark blue coat and a tall hat with stars on it — was a self-portrait of Flagg.
Words: 900New Words
statue n. 雕像,塑像,铸像
liberty n. 1.自由,自由权 2.许可,准许 3.放肆,无礼,冒昧行为
▲enlighten vt. 启发,开导
monument n. 纪念碑,纪念馆
alliance n. 同盟,联盟
approve vi. 赞成,称许
vt. 批准,同意
affection n. 1.喜爱 2.爱情,爱慕之情
assemble vt. 组装,装配
v. (使)集合,(使)聚集
torch n. 1.火炬 2.手电筒
bay n. (海或湖泊的)湾
exaggerate v. 夸张,夸大
breast n. 1.乳房 2.前胸,胸部
version n. 1.版本;型号 2.叙述,说法
universal a. 1.全体的,一致的,普遍的 2.通用的,广泛的,万能的 3.宇宙的,全世界的
Universally ad. 全体地,普遍地,无例外地
sixty num. 六十,六十个
fame n. 名誉,名望
interpretation n. 1.解释,说明,描述 2.(表演、演奏的)艺术处理
solemn a. 1.庄严的,肃穆的 2.严肃的
▲medieval a. 中古的,中世纪的
inspire vt. 1.给……以灵感 2.鼓舞,激励
grave a. 1.(指人)表情严肃的,端庄的 2.严重的
n. 坟墓,墓穴
▲dentist n. 牙科医生
alongside prep. 在... ...旁边,和... ....一起
ad. 在旁边,并排地
stretch vt. 1.拉长,拉紧,伸展 2.使尽全力,到(超过)... ... 的极限
vi. 扩展,延伸,延续
portrait n. 肖像,画像
◆buffalo n. 水牛,野牛
▲nickel n. (美国或加拿大的)五分镍币,五分钱
tragedy n. 1.悲剧,惨案,不幸的事件 2.悲剧(艺术)
settlement n. 1.殖民,移民,拓居 2.解决;协议
frontier n. 1.边境,边界,(美国靠近未开发地带的)边远地区 2.前沿,新领域
herd n. 兽群, 牧群
vt. 使集中在一起,把……赶在一起
horn n. 1.(牛、羊、鹿等的)角 2.喇叭,号角,警报器
liberate vt. 解放,释放
reputation n. 名声,名望
inspect vt. 1.检查 2.视察
contract n. 合同,契约
v. 订合同,订契约
evolve v. (使)演变,(使)演化,(使)发展
recruit vt. 招募,征兵,吸收(新成员)
n. 新兵,新成员
poster n. 招贴(画),海报,布告
beard n. 胡子,胡须
chin n. 下巴
Phrases and Expressions
work on sth. 从事于,致力于
be in love with sb. 与……恋爱,相爱
approve of sth. 赞成,称许,满意
go ahead 继续;进行
for sale 出售,待售
come up with 找到,想出(答案、解决办法等)
rise to fame 成名
name after sb. 以某人姓名命名
save sb. from 拯救,使免于
go against 与... ... 相反,违背
run away from 突然离开,逃离
Proper Names
the Statue of Liberty 自由女神像
Frederic Auguste Bartholdi 弗里德里克·奥古斯特·巴托尔迪(1834-1904,法国雕塑家)
Liberty Enlightening the World "自由照耀世界"
Philadelphia 费城(美国宾夕法尼亚州东南部港市)
New York Bay 纽约湾(靠美国纽约州东南岸和新泽西州东北岸,临哈得逊河)
Barbie 芭比娃娃(一种十分畅销的金发碧眼玩具娃娃的商标名)
Barbara Handler 芭芭拉·汉德勒
Elliot Handler 艾略特·汉德勒
Ruth Handler 鲁思·汉德勒
Mattel Toy Company 马特尔玩具公司
Ken 肯(人名)
American Gothic 《美国哥特式》(格兰特·伍德的名画)
Grant Wood 格兰特·伍德
Nan 南(人名)
Indian 印第安人
James Earle Fraser 詹姆斯·厄尔·弗雷泽
Central Park Zoo (纽约)中央公园动物园
Uncle Sam 山姆大叔(指美国政府或美国人)
Sam Wilson 山姆·威尔逊
the American Revolution 美国独立战争(1775-1783)
US Army 美国陆军
Brother Jonathan 乔纳森大哥(原为18世纪英国兵对美国民兵的谑称,现可指美国或典型的美国男人

James Montgomery Flagg 詹姆斯·蒙哥马利·弗拉格(1877-1960,美国插图和广告画家)

Section (B) Engelbreit's the Name, Cute Is My GameMary Engelbreit was a talented but struggling artist in her mid-twenties when she flew to New Yorkfrom her native Saint Louis, hoping to find work illustrating children's books — her life's goal. So shewas disappointed when all the book publishers she visited turned her down. One even suggested herdrawings might be better suited to greeting cards. "I was crushed," Engelbreit admits. Greeting cards seemed a come-down from her high expectations,but the advice stayed with her, and she decided to give it a try. The results transformed her lifeforever. Today Mary Engelbreit sells an astonishing 14 million greeting cards a year. Her popular designsappear on more than 2,000 products, including books, calendars, and kitchen items. She runs a retailcompany with shops in nine cities (16 more are planned), and her products are carried by 25,000retailers. Annual retail sales are in the $100 million range — all as a result of that fateful, disappointingtrip to New York. It's probably no accident that one of Engelbreit's bolder cards shows a young girl inoveralls, her bare feet up on a desk, a farm field in the window behind her. "We Don't Care How TheyDo It in New York," the card boasts. Once you know Engelbreit's distinctive style, you can recognize her cards from 20 paces away —bright, funny, and with an eye to the past. Her cards usually have elaborate border designs comprisedof repeated images: hearts, flowers, peaches, and teapots, for example. Most often, there's Ann Estelle,a woman with short, straight hair, big glasses, hat and an acid tongue. Ann Estelle (named after hergrandmother) is the imaginary representative of Mary's outlook. Engelbreit is cheerful, down-to-earth, humorous, and always cute. "I think the world could use morecuteness," she explains. Indeed, it's her trademark. Her business card once featured a drawing of AnnEstelle, cigar in her mouth and drink in hand, with the message "Engelbreit's the Name, Cute Is MyGame." She adds, "As the world gets more complicated, it's nice to have old-fashioned stuff around tohelp people cope with the demands of modern life. It's like comfort food. This is comfort art."Old-fashioned art — and values — have always been at the core of Engelbreit's life. Born June 5,1952, in St. Louis, the oldest of three daughters, she started drawing almost as soon as she could hold apencil. One of her earliest memories, from age four, is of sketching her parents all dressed up to go out forthe evening. "I was so impressed I had to record it," she says. But what impressed her most wereillustrations from the children's books that her mother read to her. Artists such as Jessie Willcox Smith,illustrator of children's literary classics, and Johnny Gruelle, creator of Raggedy Ann, were veryinfluential in the development of her early drawings. While attending secondary school, Engelbreit sold dozens of hand-drawn cards to a local shop for 25cents a piece — her first venture into art and commerce. She ignored her teachers' advice to become anEnglish teacher and didn't bother with going on to a university because "I was ready to plunge into mylife as an artist." Working in an art-supply shop, "I met working artists and realized you can make aliving doing this." A later job as a designer at an advertising agency "taught me about the business ofart" . In 1975 Engelbreit met social worker Phil Delano, and the couple married two years later. Delanobecame his wife's biggest supporter. "Even when we had no money, he never said, 'Go get a job,'" shesays. "I can't express my gratitude for his support."After that ill-fated trip to New York, Engelbreit sent a sample of her drawings to two greeting-cardcompanies. One bought three of her original drawings, and she did occasional work for the other,sketching a lot of whales, dragons, castles and mythical animals. Then in 1980 the birth of her sonadded a new element to her work. "Suddenly everyday life seemed more interesting to me," she says. Children, pets, even "good old Mom" started showing up on her cards. Her work became "pictures ofdaily life, things everyone's been through". While eight months pregnant, in 1983, Engelbreit decided to start her own company. Within twoyears, her company was producing nearly 100 different cards and selling a million of them a year. In1986 she licensed the copyrights to the cards to Sunrise Publications, who now manages theirproduction and distribution, allowing her to focus on other projects. Among these is her home-decorating magazine which is sent to 550,000 people. Despite her success, Engelbreit's feet are planted firmly on the ground. She still lives 16 kilometresfrom where she grew up, has many friends dating back to school years, and moved from a large houseto a smaller one because, she explains, her family didn't use all the space in the old place. She does mostof her drawing in her home studio at night. With her work taking off in so many directions, it was perhaps inevitable that Engelbreit wouldeventually realize her dream of illustrating a children's book. In 1993 she created drawings for achildren's book and saw it become a best-seller. At the same time she made a surprising discovery: "Itwas fun, but oddly enough, I like doing cards best."Words: 903 New Words ▲cute a. 1.娇小可爱的 2.聪明的,伶俐的 cuteness n. 可爱 saint n. 1.圣(用于人名、地名等之前) 2.(基督教正式追封的)圣徒 3.圣人,道德高尚的人 crush vt. 1.压倒,压垮 2.打败 3.压碎,压坏 astonish vt. 使震惊,使惊骇 calendar n. 日历,月历,年历 retail n. 零售 v. 零售 retailer n. 零售商 annual a. 1.一年的 2.一年一次的;每年的 n. 年刊,年鉴 bold a. 1.勇敢的,无畏的 2.冒失的,唐突的,鲁莽的 3.醒目的;轮廓清晰的 4.粗(字)体的,黑(字 )体的 overall n. 工作服,工装裤 a. 全面的,综合的,全体的 bare a. 1.裸露的 2.空的;光秃的,无遮盖的 distinct a. 1.种类不同的,有区别的,分开的 2.清楚的,清晰的,明显的 ◆distinctive a. 有特色的,与众不同的 elaborate a. 精细复杂的,精心制作的 v. 详细叙述 comprise vt. 1.由... ... 组成,包括,包含 2.组成,构成 peach n. 桃;桃树 acid a. 1.尖酸刻薄的,讽刺的 2.酸味的,酸的 n. 酸,酸性物质 imaginary a. 想像中的,虚构的 humorous a. 幽默的,诙谐的 ▲trademark n. 1.明显的特征,标记 2.商标;牌号 feature vt. 以... ... 为特征, 给... ...以显著地位 n. 1.特点,特征,特色 2.面貌,相貌 3.特写,专题报道 cigar n. 雪茄烟 illustration n. 1.图解,插图 2.说明,例证 literary a. 文学上的 classic n. 经典作品,文学名著,杰作 a. 1.经典的,一流的 2.古典的,传统样式的 influential a. 有影响力的,有说服力的 venture n. 投机活动,商业冒险 v 冒险,敢于 commerce n. 商业,贸易 plunge v. 1.纵身投入,一头进入 2.(使)陷入 gratitude n. 感激,感谢 sample n. 样品,式样 vt. 抽样检查;试用 whale n. 鲸 dragon n. 龙(想像中有翅有尾、能吐火的动物) myth n. 神话 ◆mythical a. 1.神话的,只存在于神话中的 2.虚构的,不真实的 everyday a. 每天的,日常的, 平常的 license vt. 给... ... 发放许可证,准许 n. 1.许可证,执照 2.许可,准许 copyright n. 版权 sunrise n. 日出(时分) distribution n. 1.(物资等的)运送 2.分发,分配 3.分布,分布状态 decorate vt. 装饰,装潢 studio n. 1.工作室,画室,摄影室 2.演播室,播音室,录音室 Phrases and Expressions turn down 拒绝,驳回 be suited to 适合于 appear on 在... ... 上出现 with an eye to 关注 be comprised of 由 ... ... 组成 dress up 穿着盛装 go out (离家)去参加社交活动 be influential in 有影响 bother with 为 ... ... 操心,为... ... 费心 make a living 谋生,营生 show up 出现 have/keep/with one's feet (planted/set) on the ground 实事求是(的),脚踏实地(的) grow up (指人或动物)长大,成年 date back to 始于(某时期) take off (指思想、产品等)突然受欢迎,流行 Proper Names Mary Engelbreit 玛丽·恩格尔布赖特 Saint Louis 圣路易斯 Ann Estelle 安·埃丝特尔 Jessie Willcox Smith 杰西·威尔科克斯·史密斯 Johnny Gruelle 约翰尼·格鲁埃尔 Raggedy Ann "蓬发安"(洋娃娃) Phil Delano 菲尔·德拉诺 Sunrise Publications 黎明出版公司 Section (C) Life in Low-Grade Terror The phone rang, and I grabbed it as fast as I could. "Thank you for calling the Psychic Network (通灵热线)," I said as I started my presentation. "I read tarot cards(塔罗特纸牌). I'm mixing the cards now;tell me when it feels right to stop." As usual, I made noises with the cards without bothering to mixthem, much less read them. The first time I saw a psychic television commercial (通灵大师电视商业广告), I wasn't as interestedin the famous people advertising the service as I was in ordinary people talking about the life-transforming psychic help they had received. As I recall, an office manager said her psychic (通灵大师)told her that the first man she talked to at a Christmas (圣诞) party would become her husband — nowthey're married and expecting a child. A housewife who lost her cat found it in the exact placepredicted. But the satisfied customers — mostly women — didn't look like they could afford $3.99 aminute to talk to a psychic on the phone. At the time, I was a struggling writer. I decided to get a job asa psychic and then write about it. To start my career, I took a nine-hour class with a fast-talking woman who made a living readingtarot cards at psychic fairs and for private customers. At the end of the course, I still felt like abeginner, so I studied the scientific reasons why tarot cards work. Israeli researchers suggest thatthere is a similarity between tarot readings and the plots of popular folk tales. By laying out a few cards,you create a story as appealing as a fairy tale, with your client as the hero. People are amazed at your"insight" because most are so vain (爱虚荣的) they can't imagine how much they have in common withthe rest of the population. To further prepare myself, I offered readings to friends, including a scientist who makes a career ofproving popular beliefs to be false. My friend laughed as I laid out his cards and gave my introduction. But soon his laughter faded, and later he told me he was astonished that my reading was so " accurate". I figured I was ready. I called the Psychic Readers Network, which immediately mailed me an application. Soon someonefrom their personnel department called, and I gave a reading. "Great," she said. "You can startimmediately."First I had to learn a long list of instructions: Always pick up the phone by the second ring. Neveranswer specific questions before doing a "general reading". This would take up a lot of time and keepthe client on the line past the first two minutes that Psychic Readers offered free. The call could last as long as 55 minutes, which (after taking away the two free minutes) translatedinto a telephone bill of $211.47. I kept the conversation going by asking for a full name and address "sowe can send you tickets for reduced price readings." At the end I was required to say, "For adults andentertainment only."All this was strengthened by the message I listened to each time I phoned in to work. "Come on,guys," it said. "Make sure you write down the full mailing address. We have six people testing everypsychic every month. We will see if you're doing everything properly."With this pace, I lived in low-grade terror — and I was only a part-time worker. Imagine peopletrying to make a living at this job. Most were women working 20 to 40 hours a week on the phone. Forthe $3.99 they earned each minute for the company, they kept only 25 cents in base pay — with noother benefits. Each week a computer totals the average length of your calls; if it is under 14 minutes,you're in trouble. You learn to cultivate the callers who increase your average as they take you through long stories ofcrisis and loneliness. One woman lived eight miles from town, had a drinking problem and thought shewas pregnant. She couldn't figure out what to do. I asked if she'd been to the doctor to see if she reallywas pregnant. No. She'd rather have the cards tell her. "Well," I said, "the cards show you'll be going toa store and buying a pregnancy (怀孕) test."Then I got my first call from Teneecia — suicidal(有自杀倾向的) with a recently dead boyfriend. Herswas the most extreme crisis I'd ever confronted, and at first I was terribly afraid. Then, withoutthinking rationally, I leapt into action. "Teneecia," I said. "Your boyfriend knows how much you lovehim. But he wants you to stay where you are, alive, and be a mother to his baby. And I want you to callme any time. Here's my home phone. Forget the psychic network — it's way too expensive.""Really?" Teneecia responded. "Oh, thank you. You're my psychic friend." I hung up and wept. Before long, I dialed Psychic Readers Network to discuss their business and people like Teneecia. Butnobody got back to me. I sent a note informing them I was leaving. Since then, I've heard that the psychic-talk business is doing poorly and that phone psychics havebeen considering another form of telephone work: phone sex. Same money, slightly different dialog. And the work, it's said, is much easier.

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